'Daniel Cullimore's Charity'
Daniel Cullimore died on April 8, 1889. By his will, dated
October 23 1888, capital monies, stocks, funds, shares and
securities, representing the sum of £8,000 were bequeathed
to the Commissioners of Charitable Donations and
Bequests for Ireland . These monies, subject to the
payment of all proper costs, were to be transferred to and
vested in the said Commissioners, to be applied and
administered by them for the benefit of the charities created
by the said will.
Daniel Cullimore's Charity
The legal language in the wording of the scheme for the
administration of the Charity founded by Daniel Cullimore
is clear and precise but lengthy. The administration of the
Charity by the local committee, who give their services
gratuitously, was initially very difficult and down through
the years caused those involved many problems and
headaches. Nevertheless, the committees always strove to
give the best service possible.
To do justice to those who have administered the Charity
since 1891, a period of 108 years, it would be necessary to
write a book on the subject. Within the confines of an
article for a historical journal it has been necessary to
curtail details, without omitting relevant data/information.
The First Local Committee
The administration of a charity is usually in the hands of a
local committee who act under the conditions of a bequest
and the guidance, approval and directions of the
commissioners. The Cullimore Charity first local
committee was as follows:
In a hand-written draft Captain H. S. Pigott's name had
been included. It was later replaced by Robert A. Byron's
- Very Rev. William Murphy P.P. Taghmon (executor)
- Rev. Garrett Rennison, Rector, Taghmon (executor)
- Robert A. Byron, Harristown, Esquire (representing COI
- Robert J. Sparrow, Ballinclay, Esquire (representing COI
- Mr. James Keating, Taghmon (representing Catholic
- Mr. Bartle Brennan, Taghmon (representing Catholic
Legal Difficulties 1890
Daniel Cullimore died on April 8 1889. It was January
1891 before the scheme legally came into operation. The
Commissioners refused to accept the Bequest or to
administer the trust funds, owing to the peculiar nature of
the Bequest and the difficulty of administering it. The
executors lodged the funds in court at the end of the month
of July 1890. Dean Murphy and the other petitioners
instructed Mr. Huggard, Solicitor, in the beginning of
November, to take the necessary steps to have the
charitable intentions of the testator carried out. The petition
was immediately presented to Mr. D. H. Madden, Attorney
General for Ireland, for his fiat, which was necessary before
the petition could be brought before the court. The
Attorney General having approved of the petition, the
matter came on for hearing before the Master of the Rolls
on Wednesday, November 26, when he made an order
referring the matter to Chambers to settle the scheme. He
directed that Mr. Huggard should have the scheme settled at
once and brought before him for his approval. A Bequest
regarding the keeping of the Cullimore grave was causing a
problem. Daniel's parents and three of his brothers were
buried within the Cullimore Enclosure in St. Munn's
Cemetery. £4 was to be paid every year to the woman or
man taking charge at the graveyard of Taghmon so long as
no one, not bearing the name of Cullimore, is buried in the
Cullimore enclosed ground or grave there; the said grave
to be kept in proper order and the railings to be painted at
least once a year. A certificate in writing of the Rector,
was to be sufficient proof that the conditions had been
complied with as stipulated. The Master of the Rolls
decided that keeping the grave in repair was not a charitable
bequest and so it was excluded from the scheme. Mr. J. W.
Richards B.L. (instructed by Sir Patrick Maxwell, solicitor)
appeared on behalf of the Commissioners.
Ballyanne Estate Workmen
In the beginning of 1891 the Master of the Rolls gave
judgement in another petition to have a certain portion of
the bequest distributed for the benefit and the maintenance
of the families of Daniel's former workmen at Ballyanne,
New Ross. This bequest was to be financed from the
residue of the annual interest, if there were such, after other
expenses had been paid. The arguments lasted for two
days. On the last Saturday in January, the Master of the
Rolls held that the bequest was void for uncertainty, and
consequently should be struck out. He expressed the
opinion that the petitioners hadn't lost anything, as he
believed the several other matters in the will would expend
all the interest. It was right, however, that they should be
represented by counsel and solicitor, and he accordingly
Mr. A.W. Samuels B.L. (instructed by Mr. Huggard)
acted for the petitioners. Mr. Mark Cooper B.L. (instructed
by Mr. M. J. O'Connor) acted for the families of the
Ballyanne workmen. Mr. Piers White Q.C., and Mr. Hume
B.L. (instructed by Crawford and Lockhart, Belfast) acted
for the executors of the will. Mr.Cruishark B.L. (instructed
by Mr. Elgee) represented the Rector of Taghmon. Mr.
Richards B.L. (instructed by Sir Patrick Maxwell) acted for
the Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests
and Mr. Ball B.L. (instructed by Mr. Robinson) represented
the Attorney General.
Proper legal procedures having been pursued, the Scheme
was ready for implementation. The Scheme, annexed to
Order of the Master of the Rolls, Chancery Division, in the
High Court of Justice in Ireland, is dated January 31 1891.
The solicitor for petitioners was Martin Huggard, No. 7,
Stephen's Green North, Dublin and Wexford. A
handwritten copy of a draft scheme, entitled Cullimore
Trusts, was prepared by R.W. Elgee, Solicitor, 110, Grafton
Street, Dublin and Wexford.
The Principal Bequests:
- This charity was to be known as Daniel Cullimore's
- The sum of £8,000 was to be invested in the
- The Trust Funds were to be invested as the
Commissioners saw fit as authorised by the Trust
Investment Act 1889.
- The income of the Capital Fund was to be applied by
the Commissioners as follows:
- In paying for 150 tons of house coal, to be purchased,
stored, weighed out and distributed annually by the
local committee amongst poor persons in the town of
Taghmon or within three statute miles from the old
castle in said town.
- In paying £2 each per annum to the Rector and Parish
Priest of Taghmon to enable them to provide coal
tickets and meet expenses incurred by them in relation
to the Charity.
- After making the aforesaid payments, apprentice fees
not exceeding £10 in any one case for boys, not
exceeding 10 in number for each year, were to be paid
in apprenticing them to any useful trade, business,
occupation or service and in providing a suitable outfit
for any boy so apprenticed, such boys to be nominated
alternately by the Rector and Parish Priest of Taghmon
to the Commissioners.
- Instead of nominating a boy as an apprentice, the Rector
or the Parish Priest could pay a sum, not exceeding £10,
to enable a boy to emigrate.
- Similarly £10 could be paid for any boy to enable him
to obtain instruction in technical or industrial work at
any place of scientific instruction approved of by the
Commissioners. A total of ten boys could benefit
annually under the terms of c, d & e. Certificates
containing particulars as to the age, place of birth and
qualifications of the boys nominated, to be forwarded
by the Rector and Parish Priest to the Commissioners.
- The Local Committee shall consist of :
- the Rector and Parish Priest for the time being of the
Parish of Taghmon (they having been nominated in the
said will as administrators of the Charity).
- four laymen residing in Taghmon or within a radius of 3
miles; Two shall be members of the Church of Ireland
and two shall be members of the Roman Catholic
Details of the format to be followed by the committee were
clearly defined in the document. These covered the
- number for a quorum (3)
- appointment of a chairman
- number of meetings to be held annually
- minute book entries, attendance, resolutions and
- appointment of new lay members
- duties of the committee (subject to the approval of the
Commissioners) in providing a suitable yard/shed for
the delivery, storage, weighing and distribution of coal
- the annual distribution of coal tickets
- the keeping of full accounts of all income and
expenditure by the Committee; said accounts and books
to be available for inspection and balance sheets
forwarded to the Commissioners every year
The Scheme was launched. The Commissioners and the
local committee had taken on what was obviously at the
time a formidable task, and with the passing of the years an
impossible one to implement exactly as the testator dictated
in his will.
Records of the Cullimore Charity
Ledger records dating from 1891 to the present have been
kept by the local committee and they give a very clear
picture of the progress of the Scheme. Unfortunately the
Minute Book of meetings 1891 - 1936 is missing but those
from 1937 to the present are intact. From these records we
can follow the progress of the Coal Scheme and the
Apprenticeship Scheme but there is no record or proof of
boys being assisted in emigrating.
Impact of Scheme on Taghmon
It is difficult in the end of the twentieth century to visualise
the impact and the importance of the Scheme when it was
first introduced in 1891, 108 years ago. The difficulties
that afflict late 20th century families such as poverty,
sickness, unemployment and the problems associated with
old age had to be faced in the 19th century without the
benefit of Social Welfare and Health Schemes. People in
distress were dependent on meagre payments under the
Poor Law or by having recourse to the shelter of the Poor
House. The Old Age Pension Scheme was not introduced
until 1908, when for the first time, pensions varying from
one shilling to five shillings a week, became payable on
January 1 1909 to persons aged 70 or over. Large families
lived in poverty and in need, under the threat of
consumption/tuberculosis which had 'no pity for blue eyes
and golden hair'. Homes could be cold and damp during
the harsh winter months. It was Daniel Cullimore's
intention, that there should at least be a warm fire in poor
people's homes, to give them some solace and comfort at
Christmas time and during the harsh winter months. He
may have got the idea from a fund undertaken by Miss
Richards who collected money for the Taghmon and
Coolstuffe coal fund. In 1875/76 she received the
following subscriptions from well-to-do landed gentry and
inserted a notice of thanks in a local newspaper .
| ||£ ||s ||d
||1 ||0 ||0
|Carew, the Right Hon. Lord ||2 ||0 ||0
|| ||10 ||0
|Doyne C.M. Esq ||1
|Ely, Marquis of ||2
|Goff S.O. Esq ||
|Hore Ruthven Hon.G ||1 ||0
|O'Grady Hon. Mrs ||2 ||0
|Power, Sir James Bart ||1 ||0 ||0
|Richards Miss ||1
|£11 ||15 ||0
This amount of money would have paid for
approximately 12 tons of coal. One can imagine the joy in
Taghmon when it became known that under Daniel
Cullimore's Charity 150 tons of coal would be purchased
and that 300 coal tickets, each entitling the bearer to ½ ton
of coal, would be distributed locally annually.
First Ledger Entry
1891, April 21
| ||£ ||s ||d
|To 150 tons of Coals at J.M. Marlowe's a/c
@ 26/- per ton
||195 ||0 ||0
|To Scales and Weights @ 2/6
||4 ||4 ||7
|Very Rev. Dean Murphy, P.P. Expenses
||2 ||0 ||0
|Rev. G. Rennison, Rector, Expenses
||2 ||0 ||0
|Man, 9 weeks storing & delivering the coals @ 12/- ||5
|Advertising for Contractors
|| ||7 ||0
|July 6 Furnished amount
||£214 ||1 ||7
|Mr. John O'Connor 150 tons of coal @25/6 per ton
||191 ||5 ||0
|| || 8
|Rev. Dean Murphy, P.P.
||2 ||0 ||0
|Rev. G. Rennison, Rector
||2 ||0 ||0
|Man, 11 weeks taking & delivering @ 12/-
||6 ||12 ||0
| || £416
The first cheque is probably the 1889-90 income from
investing the capital, which had not been used in 1890.
August 16 By cheque for the coals
||195 ||0 ||0
|Dec 17 By cheque order no. 815
||221 ||6 ||7
| ||£416 ||6 ||7
It can be seen from this ledger entry that the Scheme had
been interpreted precisely, under instructions from the
Commissioners, by the local committee and that it was
being operated as Daniel Cullimore had so clearly wished.
In 1892 a store in Back Street was rented from Mr. J.
Keating. Insurance on the store was paid and a brush and
handle and a chain were bought. The position of
storekeeper must have been a nightmare. His duties were
onerous, very demanding physically and psychologically
and the task of ensuring that the coal was safely stored was
very difficult. James Whelan was the first storekeeper
named in the ledger in 1896. He was paid £3. For this sum
he received, stored and weighed out the coal using a
weighing scales and a shovel. The coal was delivered from
the ship and transported by horse and cart to Taghmon.
Those who received coal tickets were responsible for
transporting the coal to their homes, by donkey and cart if
they were lucky enough to have such a luxury. Neighbours
helped each other when they could, but many a man gladly
carried a bag of coal home on his back.
Advertisements for annual tenders were published in the
Daniel Cullimore Coal
The local committee will at their meeting to be held
on 29th July 1921, receive and consider tenders for
the supply of 60 to 100 tons of best Standish Wigan
House Coal or Powells Red Ash, Newport, the bill of
lading to be produced; to be delivered and weighed
in the Stores, Taghmon, direct from vessel not later
than the 1st of September 1921. Tenders to be lodged
with James Cullen, Taghmon, on or before 10 o'clock
on Friday, 8th August. The committee do not bind
themselves to accept the lowest or any tender.
James Cullen, Taghmon
22nd July 1921.
For the first fifty years there was very little change in the
annual income and the price of coal. However, twenty
years later, the price of coal had risen dramatically while
the annual interest had not. In fact the value of the capital
had decreased at an alarming rate, as is shown in this item
from an article entitled 'Memories of Taghmon' in the Free
Press, November 15 1956. Under the heading Cullimore
Charity Coal Fund it states that the £8,000 charity was
invested in 2½ per cent Consols. The price was then par -
£100 for each £100 share. Their value today is less than ½
- £46. Consequently it had become progressively more
difficult to adhere strictly to Daniel Cullimore's wishes.
Approximate Income from interest on Capital 1891 - 1998
||Average interest per year
|1891-1920 ||4,738 ||£157
|1922-1951 ||7,954 ||£265
|1952-1972 ||4,220 ||£211
|1973-1982 ||3,288 ||£328
|1983-1992 ||7,731 ||£773
|1993-1998 ||6,360 ||£1,060
| || £34,291
Average Price of Coal
|£ ||s ||d
||1 ||6 ||0
||1 ||4 ||3
||1 ||14 ||10
||1 ||14 ||5
||1 ||17 ||6
||£13 ||0 ||0
||£20 || ||
||£31 || ||
From 1891 to 1941 the price of coal was fairly constant and
the number of tickets entitling bearer to ½ ton coal varied
only slightly, but in 1942, during World War II, there was
no coal available. Mr. H. Wilson, Coal Merchant, wrote to
the committee to inform them of the sinking of his coal
ship. In 1942 and 1943 Mr. James Boggan, Tottenham
Green, supplied 89 tons blocks.
The Commissioners did not favour the issuing of vouchers
but eventually agreed to this procedure. In 1944, fuel
vouchers valued @16/- (80p) each were reluctantly
introduced. These enabled the holders to purchase fuel
from any trader willing to honour them. This system
continued until 1953 when 21 traders were supplying fuel -
204 vouchers having been issued that year. The number of
traders involved was becoming too numerous. It was
difficult to monitor the vouchers. A new system was
introduced to restore order and control.
In 1954 tenders were requested and received from three
local traders. These were accepted by the Committee and
vouchers valued at 28/6 were issued to 174 persons. The
coal was supplied by:
|J. McDonald ||62 vouchers
|P. Keating ||43 vouchers
|T. Williams ||63 vouchers
The income from the fund was £220 but there was money
in the bank balance to cover expenses. In 1968, the list had
to be reduced to 106.
The steep increase in the price of coal coincided with the
introduction of decimal currency. Social conditions had
improved and there were less people living in dire
circumstances. The object of the Charity and the aim of the
Commissioners was to give the maximum benefit to the
most deserving cases.
In 1973, coal cost £20 per ton, but the income from the
fund had not increased proportionately. 108 applicants had
received only 14 stones of coal each. The list of applicants
was again revised, so that those most in need could receive
a worthwhile amount of coal. Only widows, old age
pensioners and the disabled were considered eligible.
Many people were naturally disappointed but the
committee had to operate within a very strict limited
budget. 60 applicants received 2 cwts. coal @£1.55 per cwt
each. In 1978, Taghmon Cattle Mart offered £120 to
supplement the income. This was used in 1980.
By 1982 the price of coal had risen to £5.80 per 50 kgs
and only old age pensioners were eligible to receive the
vouchers. In 1998, 44 vouchers valued at £20 each were
issued to old age pensioners. Coal now costs, depending on
grade, from £6.50 to £7.90 per 50k. Perhaps in the future
there will no longer be coal available but the
Commissioners and the local committee will as ever,
endeavour to do their best, under changing circumstances,
to administer the Charity.
The Coal Scheme has survived and will survive in the
future. It may be forgotten that there was also a bequest
which funded apprentices. Fortunately for research, Rev.
P.M. Furlong, P.P recorded some apprentices' names in the
ledger and left simple receipts as proof of the boys
completing their apprenticeships.
There is also an original Indenture signed by Thomas
Walshe, apprentice, Nicholas Devereux, Master, and P.M.
Furlong P.P. Taghmon, dated Feb 5, 1906. Being an
apprentice, to judge by the terms specified in the Indenture,
demanded a high standard of self denial. An extract from an
Indenture runs as follows :
He shall do no damage to his said Master, nor see it to be done
of others ... He shall not commit fornication nor contract
Matrimony within said term. He shall not play at Cards, Dice
Tables or any other unlawful Games, whereby his said Master
may have loss. He shall not haunt nor use Taverns, Ale
Houses or Playhouses nor absent himself from his Master's
service day or night, unlawfully.
Many boys however stayed the course and no doubt
derived benefit and a livelihood by their perseverance and
stamina. Daniel Cullimore believed in giving a boy a trade
so that he could become useful and independent.
Receipts signed by Rev. P. M. Furlong, for boys
nominated by him, are proof that the apprentices completed
their term, which usually took four years. In the case of
John Kehoe, apprenticed to John Fane, baker, the
apprenticeship was for five years. The fee payable by the
Commissioners to the Master was £10; 1st moiety on
signing an indenture and 2nd moiety after two years.
The apprentice was to learn a trade. He was entitled to
food, lodging, washing and occasionally medicine and
clothes. A sum of £5 was to be paid to an apprentice on
the completion of his apprenticeship.
||Period of Apprentice
& payments to master
|Nov 20 1896
||4 years completed
|Nov 20 1896
||4 years completed
|April 10 1897
||4 years completed
|Nov 23 1897
June 16 1889 £5 paid
June 21 1899 £2 paid
|May 29 1899
Nov 27 1899
Nov 29 1899
Jan 2 1900, £10 paid
Dec 11 1906 £5
Dec 22 1908 £5
Dec 8 1907 £5
June 12 1910 £5
|June 11 1910
||June 11 1911 £5
It is recorded that James Doyle, apprentice was to receive
1s per week during the last year of his apprenticeship and
that Martin Carty and James Doyle were each paid £2 10 0.
I have not dealt with the meetings and the day-to-day details connected
with the operating of the Scheme: e.g.
- Renting, paying insurance for and keeping the store in
good repair: likewise the weights, wheelbarrows,
shovels etc. When the Scheme started, the store was
rented from Mr. P. Keating, later bought for £40, and
when no longer used, sold.
- Advertising for and scrutinising tenders
- Banking and budgeting, keeping accounts, forwarding
balance sheets to the Commissioners, preparing the
ledgers for frequent inspection by representatives of the
- Preparation of and distribution of coal tickets ensuring
vouchers were honoured and accounts paid promptly
These and many other duties were faithfully fulfilled by
the committee members during the past 108 years.
The Cullimore Charity account was initially opened in the
Bank of Ireland in Wexford. In 1935 it was transferred to
the National Bank Taghmon, now the Bank of Ireland. The
Local Committee has kept the accounts excellently and a
sum is always reserved in balance to cover unexpected
expenses or to cope with rapid price increases.
Accountants from the Commissioners, who examined and
signed the ledgers, always found the accounts in order.
Accountants from Commissioners:
|1922 ||Alan Rayner F.R.C.A.
|1924 ||J.A. Swaine
|1937 ||M. Clancy
|1947 ||M. O'Suilleabhain
|1952 ||J. O'Sullivan
|1960 ||T.J. Simons
|1963 ||J. McEvilly
|Coal Suppliers 1891 - 1953 ||(1953 - 21 traders)
|Harpur and Wickham ||Philip Keating
|J.J.Stafford * ||Tom
Thomas Donovan ||M.
|Wexford Coal Company ||Williams'
|J.Boggan (blocks) ||Neary's Store
* J.J. Stafford was a grand-nephew of Daniel Cullimore
Members of the Local Committee 1891 - 1998
The Principal of the Taghmon Primary School is
traditionally the Secretary of the Committee. Rita Curtis is
the only woman to have served on the Committee.
|1891 Rev. Garrett Rennison ||1891 Rev. William
|1897 Rev. William Evans ||1896 Rev.
Patrick M. Furlong
|1915 Rev. Thomas Lowe ||1914 Rev.
|1921 Rev. Francis B. Mollen ||1925 Rev.
|1926 Rev. Thomas Talbot ||1953 Rev.
Michael Byrne ADM
|1934 Rev. George Browne ||1956 Rev.
|1956 Rev. M.W. Talbot ||1972 Rev.
|1964 Rev. Ernest A. Brandon ||1984 Rev.
|1995 Rev. Norman J. Ruddock ||1997 Rev. Denis
| William Bennett N.T. ||1891 James
|1926 John J. Kelly N.T.* ||1896 Thomas
|1951 Martin Doyle N.T. ||1924
|1985 Rita Curtis N.T. ||1940 Mrs.
|1992 Dan O'Flaherty N.T. ||1952 Nan
|1954 Mrs. Nan Codd
| ||1996 Mrs. Mai Ward
* In 1954 the Charity received £134 from Mr. J.J. Kelly's
Lay Committee Members
|Church of Ireland
|Robert A. Byron
|Robert J. Sparrow
||J. J. Kelly
||J. R. Cullen
In 1948 Mr. A. Watchorn was appointed a member of the
Committee in place of the late Capt. Parker. Aby is the
longest serving member of the Committee having reached a
record of 50 years service in 1998 - a remarkable
The good that Daniel Cullimore did lives after him. For
this he deserves to be remembered in Taghmon and
'within three statute miles from the old castle in said town'.
Parochial Records, Taghmon
Local Committee, Taghmon
Ledgers and Minute Book
Rev. D. Brennan P.P.
Mary Rose Curtis
Ann Marie Lemass
Rev. T. McCormack
REFERENCES AND NOTES
- See article on his life and times by Rita Curtis in this journal.
- The Board entitled 'The Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests for Ireland' presently situated at
12, Clare St., Dublin 2 is the authority responsible for the general administration of Charities in the Republic of
Ireland. The Commissioners are a statutory body and at present they derive their powers from the 1961 and 1973
Charities Acts. They are appointed by the government and give their services gratuitously. The Commissioners
meet on a monthly basis. They act as trustees for some charitable trusts and hold funds on behalf of others. They
can invest and authorise charity trustees to invest in securities outside the ordinary range of trustee securities.
Their many other functions include the appointment of new trustees and the authorisation of sales of charity
property. The Commissioners regard the carrying out of the donor's or testator's/testatrix's intention as of primary
importance. This can be very difficult at times.
- Definition of the scheme (Catholic Church, Parochial Records, Taghmon).
- The Wexford Independent November 29 1890
- The People, February 2 1891
- Catholic Church Parochial Records, Taghmon
- First Report of the Department of Social Welfare 1947-1949; my thanks to Phil Kelly H.E.O.
- The Wexford Independent April 5 1876
- The People, 27/07/1921
- Bill of Lading: an official detailed receipt, given by the master of a vessel to the person consigning the goods, by
which he makes himself responsible for their safe delivery to the consignee (the person to whom the goods are
- Catholic Church Parochial Records, Taghmon